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Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary: A Computer-Readable File Format




James L. Peterson




Software Technology Program
Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC)
3500 West Balcones Center
Austin, Texas 78759




28 May 1987





Introduction

A transcript of Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary [1] is available in a computer-readable form under license from Merriam-Webster, the publisher. This is not just a word list, but a copy of the entire dictionary including definitions, cross references, variants, synonyms and so on. It consists of some 15,696,929 characters, with 68,764 main entries.

The original dictionary was keyboarded onto the Q-32 computer at System Development Corporation (SDC) for a project headed by John Olney [2]. The dictionary was then heavily edited and moved onto an IBM 360. Magnetic tapes of this form were moved to IBM T. J. Watson Research Center and further processed by C. Alberga. A copy of this was acquired by Robert Amsler, who used the Pocket Dictionary for his dissertation [3]. We have acquired a copy of the dictionary from Amsler, and have modified it in many minor ways. This document describes our version.

The dictionary is such a large collection of text that it is broken up into 220 files for easier handling. These files reside under the names d.101, d.102, d.103, ..., d.320.

Figure 1 is a listing of d.index, the index file, showing the first and last word of each dictionary file. Note that the first letter of each word in a file is the same; that is when we switch from words starting with 'D' to words starting with 'E', we start a new file. Otherwise, files are broken to create roughly equal-sized files (from 70,000 to 80,000 characters).


Figure 1. Index to Dictionary Files
d.101;ad.156;dyeweedd.211;makingd.266;scutum
d.102;acclaimd.157;ed.212;manyfoldd.267;sego
d.103;adduced.158;egotistd.213;matchd.268;semester
d.104;afflictd.159;embraced.214;megalithd.269;sericin
d.105;albumd.160;enfiladed.215;metd.270;shall
d.106;altod.161;epigramd.216;milkd.271;shirk
d.107;anagramd.162;espyd.217;mistilyd.272;side
d.108;antd.163;exactd.218;monocotd.273;single
d.109;apothemd.164;expiated.219;motiond.274;sky
d.110;arginined.165;fd.220;mushroomd.275;slumber
d.111;aspend.166;farmerd.221;nd.276;snowsuit
d.112;atticd.167;femaled.222;negusd.277;somatic
d.113;awfuld.168;filingd.223;nimietyd.278;spahi
d.114;bd.169;flanged.224;notariald.279;spile
d.115;bankd.170;fluidd.225;od.280;spread
d.116;bathosd.171;forced.226;offendd.281;stalk
d.117;belayd.172;fourthd.227;opend.282;steep
d.118;bicolord.173;frontd.228;orpined.283;stockade
d.119;bitumend.174;gd.229;overbeard.284;strength
d.120;blowd.175;gasbagd.230;pd.285;stylus
d.121;boord.176;geometerd.231;pantd.286;suction
d.122;braked.177;glamourd.232;partd.287;supernal
d.123;brokerd.178;goldend.233;pavidd.288;swastika
d.124;bunnyd.179;graphicd.234;pennyd.289;syncope
d.125;cd.180;growd.235;perorated.290;t
d.126;cambiald.181;hd.236;phiald.291;tangible
d.127;captived.182;handseld.237;pickd.292;tedder
d.128;castd.183;headd.238;pipingd.293;terminal
d.129;cemeteryd.184;hematomad.239;platypusd.294;theory
d.130;chaperond.185;hiemald.240;poetryd.295;thresher
d.131;chilid.186;holmiumd.241;ponderd.296;timid
d.132;chukkerd.187;hostd.242;potentd.297;tongue
d.133;claymored.188;hydrod.243;preferd.298;townee
d.134;cobd.189;id.244;pricketd.299;transom
d.135;colonized.190;imbeciled.245;progenyd.300;triduum
d.136;companyd.191;improved.246;prot{e'}g{e'}d.301;truck
d.137;conduitd.192;indabad.247;puffd.302;turn
d.138;conspired.193;infectd.248;puttyd.303;u
d.139;cookoutd.194;insectd.249;qd.304;underrun
d.140;cosmeticd.195;interiord.250;quitd.305;unquote
d.141;crackd.196;invoked.251;rd.306;urologic
d.142;croned.197;itemd.252;rankd.307;v
d.143;cumshawd.198;jd.253;rebusd.308;vegetal
d.144;cysticd.199;jived.254;reenactd.309;vestment
d.145;dd.200;kd.255;relined.310;visible
d.146;debitd.201;kioskd.256;repulsed.311;w
d.147;degaussd.202;ld.257;retrieved.312;wash
d.148;dependd.203;lapsed.258;ricketsd.313;wedge
d.149;detourd.204;leand.259;rockweedd.314;whiffler
d.150;didd.205;leveretd.260;roustd.315;wildling
d.151;dirtd.206;limitd.261;ruthenicd.316;wittily
d.152;dispersed.207;livingd.262;sd.317;wreathe
d.153;dod.208;losed.263;samisend.318;x
d.154;doubletd.209;lyceumd.264;sawlogd.319;y
d.155;drolleryd.210;md.265;scincoidd.320;z


Figure 2 shows a sample of one of the dictionary files.


Figure 2. Sample Dictionary Entry
F;dull;;;;aj;;
P;'d{e}l
E;ME [italic dul]; akin to OE [italic dol] foolish and prob. to L [italic#
fumus] smoke -- more at [mini FUME]
D;1;;;aj;mentally slow : [mini STUPID]
D;2;a;;aj;slow in perception or sensibility : [mini INSENSIBLE]
D;2;b;;aj;lacking zest or vivacity : [mini LISTLESS]
D;3;a;;aj;slow in action : [mini SLUGGISH]
D;3;b;;aj;marked by little business activity <~ season>
D;4;;;aj;lacking sharpness of edge or point
D;5;;;aj;lacking brilliance or luster
D;6;a;;aj;not clear : [mini INDISTINCT]
D;6;b;;aj;not resonant or ringing
L;7;;;[italic of a color]
D;7;;;aj;low in saturation and low in lightness
D;8;;;aj;[mini CLOUDY], [mini OVERCAST]
D;9;;;aj;[mini TEDIOUS], [mini UNINTERESTING]
R;dull;;vb;;
R;dullness;3;n;;
V;dulness;3;01
P;'d{e}l-n{e}s
R;dully;3;av;;
P;'d{e}l-(l){e-}
S;0;[mini BLUNT], [mini OBTUSE]:
S;1;[mini DULL] applies physically to an edge or point that has lost its#
original sharpness through use; figuratively it suggests loss of original or#
usual quickness, zest, or pungency;
S;2;[mini BLUNT] applies to an edge or end not designed to be sharp or keen;#
it suggests innate or inherent lack of sharpness or quickness of feeling or#
perception;
S;3;[mini OBTUSE] applies to the shape of something whose point is broader#
than a right angle; it suggests that which is inordinately blunt or#
insensitive in perception or imagination <[italic obtuse] audience>
X;stupid;;;8;


Each line of the file has a character in column 1 which identifies the type and format of the line. The following table shows the number and meaning of each line type.

FrequencyLine typeMeaning



68,764FFirst line, start for a new main entry
30,673EEtymology
66,987PPronunciation
9,959VVariant
140,501DDefinition, one per line
19,123RRelated word
4,596XCross-Reference
11,992LLabel
835SSynonym block

Each line is composed of a number of fields. Fields are separated by a semicolon and are defined by their position. The first field of each line is the line type character (F, E, P, V, D, L, R, X, or S, as given above). The remaining fields depend upon the type of the line. For example, the second entry on an F-line is a main entry word, the fifth field has hyphenation information, and the seventh has part of speech information.

Figure 3 shows the contents of the fields for each line type. This report discusses each line and field in more detail.


Figure 3. Summary of the Field Contents
F linesMain entry


F1F
F2Main entry
F3Homograph Number
F4Prefix/Suffix/Infix
F5Hyphenation
F6Part of Speech
F7Part of Speech Joiner
F8Secondary Part of Speech

E linesEtymology


E1E
E2text

P linesPronunciation


P1P
P2text

V linesVariants


V1V
V2Variant Word
V3Hyphenation
V4Variant Level

D linesDefinitions


D1D
D2Sense number
D3Sense letter
D4Sense subnumber
D5Part of Speech
D6Text definition

R cardsRelated Words
R1R
R2Related Word or Phrase
R3Hyphenation
R4Part of Speech
R5Part of Speech Joiner
R6Secondary Part of Speech

X linesCross Reference


X1X
X2Word
X3superscript, if any
X4subscript, if any
X5Type of cross reference
X6Secondary word

L linesLabels


L1L
L2Sense Number
L3Sense Letter
L4Sense Subnumber
L5Label Text

S linesSynonym Block


S1S
S2Synonym number
S3text


Some lines, particularly definitions and synonym blocks are quite long and hence it is difficult to fit them on one 80 character line. Therefore, lines are split whenever necessary so that no physical line exceeds 80 characters. Lines are always split at a blank, and the incomplete line is terminated with a sharp or hash mark character ('#'). When processing the dictionary, if a line is terminated with a # character, then the # character should be replaced by a blank and the next physical line should be read in and appended to the previous line.

Character codes

A major problem with the dictionary is its character set. First, the dictionary publisher did not feel constrained in his use of characters, but choose whatever symbols best fit his purpose. Second, the dictionary was originally encoded in an extended BCD (for the Q-32 computer), then translated into EBCDIC (for the IBM 360/370) and now has been translated into ASCII. None of these character sets is completely compatible with the others, nor is any of them sufficient to represent all of the variation found in the original printed dictionary. Hence an encoding scheme must be used to expand the set of representable characters.

This expansion occurs in two independent directions: font information and special characters.

Font information is represented by use of the square brackets in ASCII to surround any special font material. Five font types are recognized: (1) italic, (2) MINI-CAPS, (3) bold, (4) subscripts, and (5) superscripts. Each is denoted by an identifying keyword immediately after the opening left square bracket, followed by a space, followed by the material to be in the defined font, followed by the closing right square bracket. For example, an italic was is represented as "[italic was]", while a mini-caps AMBIENT is "[mini AMBIENT]" and a bold syn is "[bold syn]". Superscripts and subscripts may be italic, mini-caps, or bold, and a few superscripted superscripts also occur, as in "6.24 {times} 10 [sup 10 [sup 10]]".

FrequencyKeywordMeaning



100,927italicitalic
61,883minimini caps
2,171subsubscript
4,520supsuperscript

The dictionary includes a large number of special symbols which are not representable in ASCII. These include all the Greek alphabet, the Hebrew alphabet, and many miscellaneous other special symbols. All special symbols which are not available in ASCII (and some that are) have been given names which are represented by the name encased in braces, as {degrees} (for a degree symbol) {times} (for multiplication represented by a small x), {tau} (for the lower-case greek letter tau), and so on. A complete list of these special symbols is in Appendix II.

Each symbol name has been selected to exclude embedded blanks. Thus all characters between an opening right brace and its closing right brace are non-blank. Certain characters which are in ASCII (braces, brackets, question mark, exclamation mark, and so on) have also been represented in this way because it allowed them to be used for other purposes (such as font and special character representation), and they occurred only infrequently (less than 100 times).

Errors in W7

While processing W7 both to understand its contents and to put those contents into a usable form, we encountered a large number of errors. These errors were of several types:

All these errors, once found and verified by visual inspection of the printed dictionary, were corrected by hand, using a text editor.

Another form of error analysis was an attempt to find typographical errors. The approach was simple: we extracted a list of all unique words used in the dictionary definitions. This produced a list of 54,298 words. We compared this list with the list of all words defined in the dictionary (main entries, variants, and related words). This reduced our list to 20,292 words that were used in definitions, but not defined. Many of these were derived forms of defined words: past tense, plurals, and so on. Doing some simple suffix analysis, we were left with about 8,000 words. Most of these were apparently Greek or Latin botanical or zoological names. Deleting those ending in -ia or -ae and all words in italics in the dictionary left a list of 2,821 words.

These were checked by hand to produce a list of 903 incorrectly spelled words (typographical errors in keying the dictionary into the computer). We also found 54 words which were used, but not defined:

Australasianbloomerybroadheadedclothesline
crossbeamdarkskinneddinnerwaredoorbell
entrancewayequivalveetcfieldworks
flattishforeseenforetoldfourpence
gunstockhairdresshindlimbshomeward
hyperactivityleftwardlightcoloredlonglegged
lowcutmessroommr.nailhead
neckbandnoctuidnubbyparimutuel
partakenpregenitalpyrotechnyrangeland
rosebushsawteethseneschalsheepdogs
shorthairedsightseesnowstormsongbook
spinymarginedspondumenesulphatessupersensitized
tvtwelvefoldunderstockupcurved
valencyworkpiece.

We also found a smaller list of words with typographical errors in the main entry in the computer files.

Of the 903 typographical errors, 543 were the result of a missing blank between two words. Of the remaining 360, 34% were a missing letter, 27% were a wrong letter, 20% were an extra letter, and 13% were the result of transposed letters. The remaining errors were caused by two extra or two missing letters, or by transposing two letters around a third. The middle letter in this case was always a vowel. (For example, min would be typed nim.)

We also found cases of typographical errors in the original printed dictionary. These are

[barranca]gulley => gully
[bitch]doublecross => double-cross
[capsicum]genu => genus
[drift]quantitive => quantitative
[fornication]NCE => New Catholic Edition
[kid]goodhumored => good-humored
[lapse]apostasize => apostatize
[lycopodium]clubmosses => club mosses
[type species]permanenty => permanently
[vanity]knicknack => knickknack
[select]mismatched parenthesis
[terpineol]mismatched parenthesis
[tapa]an Hawaiian (but see 'a Hawaiian' for [luau] and [poi])
[pay]REQUITE in syn not defined
[rude]ROUGH in syn not defined
[Lag b'Omer]33d => 33rd
[one]3d-person => 3rd-person

It was interesting to follow these errors through the various printings and editions of the Merriam-Webster dictionaries. Four errors were corrected in the 1970 printing of W7, one in the 1971 printing of W7, and one in the 1975 printing of the New Collegiate Dictionary. At least three errors remain in the 1983 printing of the Ninth New Collegiate ([bitch], [drift], [vanity]).

Additional error checking is continuing. Jonathan Slocum suggested checking that main entries are in alphabetical order. This revealed 41 more errors including the following errors in the printed version:

ceratecerat-
chalk upchalkstone
sterstepwise
unchangeableunchange

Many words include a cross-reference to a group of synonyms. For example, under compact, is the reference "[bold syn] see [mini CLOSE]", and close is followed by a synonym block. The following words make reference to non-existent synonym blocks. That is, under corral we have the entry "[bold syn] see [mini ENCLOSE]", but there is no synonym block for enclose.

corral[bold syn] see enclose
parable[bold syn] see allegory
put[bold syn] see set
put up[bold syn] see reside
rebellious[bold syn] see insubordinate
reputation[bold syn] see fame
sidestep[bold syn] see dodge
squirm[bold syn] see writhe
superfluity[bold syn] see excess
surplusage[bold syn] see excess
tickle[bold syn] see please
time[bold syn] see opportunity
transgression[bold syn] see breach
urgent[bold syn] see pressing
vault[bold syn] see jump

Bibliography

"Appendix I: Format of the Dictionary Files"

F lines - Main entry

F.1: Field F1 - F

This field occurs 68,764 times and is always F. It signals the start of a new set of cards related to one dictionary entry.

F.2: Field F2 - Main Entry

This field contains a main entry, a word or phrase, which is defined in the dictionary. There are 60099 unique values for this field. Generally, this is a lower-case word, but entries include,

F.3: Field F3 - Homograph Number

This field is normally empty, but may contain a number (from 1 to 9) representing a homograph number. The following list indicates the number of entries with each homograph number. An entry with a maximum homograph of 5 will have entries with homograph numbers of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

FrequencyHomograph number


65381
65422
14273
4754
1645
546
177
58
39

The two entries with exactly 8 homographs are bob and like; the three entries with 9 homographs are list, rack, and tip.

F.4: Field F4 - Prefix/Suffix/Infix

For prefix and suffix entries, this field has either a p (for prefix), s (for suffix) or i (for infix). Normally, it is empty.

FrequencyCodeMeaning



663pprefix
444ssuffix
2iinfix

The two entries with an i value are -i- and -o-.

F.5: Field F5 - Hyphenation

This field contains hyphenation information. This is a sequence of one-digit numbers giving the number of characters between possible hyphenation points. As an example, a word such as estimate is hyphenated as es-ti-mate, and would be encoded as 22. The distance from the start of the word to the first hyphenation point is two, and so is the next syllable. The word ethnological, hyphenated as eth-no-log-i-cal, is encoded as 3231.

The encoding of the distance between hyphenation points is one digit, from 1 to 9. If the distance exceeds 9, we continue with the upper case letters (as with hexadecimal). Thus A is 10, B is 11, C is 12, ..., Z is 35.

There are 773 distinct values for this field. The most common entries are:

FrequencyHyphenation encoding


67773
49904
39242
247132
214823
19355
187533
181322
98531
80442

The frequency of occurrence for each of the individual characters is:

FrequencyHyphenation Distance Code


4671
11422
8833
3504
1295
576
527
388
199
8A
10B
6C
4D
3E
2F
1G
1I

The longest hyphenation encoding is

pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis;4222323423123222213
pneu-mo-no-ul-tra-mi-cro-scop-ic-sil-i-co-vol-ca-no-co-ni-o-sis

F.6: Field F6 - Part of Speech

This field identifies the primary part of speech of the main entry. The part of speech is encoded in a two-character mnemonic abbreviation. The parts of speech codes and their frequency are listed below.

FrequencyCodePart of SpeechExample




42590nnoun
13250ajadjective
4972vtverb, transitive
2423vbverb
1432avadverb
1363viverb, intransitive
516cfcombining form
164pppreposition
150ncnoun combining form
121tmtrademark
108pnpronoun
107nsnoun suffix
96cjconjunction
94ijinterjection
74pfprefix
51jsadjective suffix
12vsverb suffix
10vpverb imperative
6asadjective suffix
4vaverbal auxiliary
3iaindefinite article
2vmverb impersonal, pastmeseems, methinks
2vcverb combining form-lyze, -sect
2sfsuffix-est, -fold
2dadefinite articlethe, ye
1npnoun plural suffix-s
1isinterjection suffix-o

F.7: Field F7 - Part of Speech Joiner

For those cases where two parts of speech are given for a single main entry (most separate parts of speech rate separate main entry listings), this field indicates how the part of speech given in field F8 is related to the part of speech of field F6.

FrequencyCodeRelationship



481Equal
2052Secondary

F.8: Field F8 - Secondary Part of Speech

When a secondary part of speech is given, it is listed in field F8. The relationship between this part of speech and the part of speech listed in field F6 is either equal or secondary, and is indicated by the contents of field F7.

FrequencyCodeSecondary Part of SpeechExample




182ajadjective
34avadverb
23nnoun
3vbverb
2vtverb, transitive
2jsadjective suffix
2cjconjunction
2asadjective suffix
1viverb, intransitivebike
1ppprepositionbetwixt
1pspronoun suffix-'s

If you look at the number and combination of F6 and F8 fields, we find the following chart of pairs with more than one occurrence:

FrequencyF6F8Example




171avajOK
34ajavago
19ajnain
7najBolshevist
3pnajtother
3nvbdupe
2vsjs-ed
2nvtescarp
2jsas-er
2avcjafore
1vtnbield
1vinparle
1vbncraunch
1nspn-'s
1ncaj-chrome
1nvibike
1avppbetwixt

E lines - Etymology

E.1: Field E1 - E

The E cards specify the linguistic derivation of words.

FrequencyCode


30673E

E.2: Field E2 - Etymology Text

There are 26943 distinct values for this field. There appear to be internal semicolons (at least 4906 of them) which do not signify field boundaries. No analysis has yet been done of this field. I suspect that it can and should be reorganized to make this information easier to use.

FrequencyMost Frequent ValuesMeaning



987ISVInternational Scientific Vocabulary
535origin unknown
376NLNew Latin
208FFrench
158LLatin
120imit.imitative
117MEMiddle English
94ME, fr. OEMiddle English, from Old English
79MF or LMiddle French or Latin
49ItItalian

P lines - Pronunciation

P.1: Field P1 - P

The P cards specify the pronunciation of the preceding F, R, or V card.

FrequencyCodeMeaning



66987PPronunciation

P.2: Field P2 - Pronunciation Text

This field has 56720 distinct values, and have basically been transcribed without interpretation or formatting, other than for special characters. Again, as with field E2, there appear to be internal semicolons (496 at least) and this field should be considered for possible reorganization.

V lines - Variants

V.1: Field V1 - V

There are 9959 V cards, specifying variant spellings for the preceding main entries.

FrequencyCodeMeaning



9959VVariant spelling

V.2: Field V2 - Variant Word

This field contains the variant word or phrase. There are 9436 unique values for this entry. Again, as with field F2, there are entries with commas, apostrophes, hyphens, special characters, and subscripts.

V.3: Field V3 - Hyphenation

The hyphenation encoding is as described for field F5. The syllable lengths run from 1 to 9, and also include a few entries of A, B, C, D, and F. The F value is for jack-in-the-boxes. The longest entries (onomatopoetically;2142213 and thermoperiodicity;4222131) are 7 digits in length. There are 262 unique values for this field.

V.4: Field V4 - Variant Level

This field encodes the relationship of the variant to its main entry. The encoding is a two-digit code. The first digit indicates the entry of which this is a variant. A "0" indicates that this is a variant of a main entry; a "1" indicates that this is a variant of the first inflected form (such as the comparative form of an adjective), and so on. The second digit indicates (with a "1") if the two forms are equally acceptable alternates, or (with a "2") if this variant form is a secondary variant.

FrequencyVariant LevelMeaningExample




509311irregular pluralganglia
246301variant spellingintortion
122821present participlechagrining
66002secondary spellingbivalved
32312
birle under birl
9931
were under be
6922
bayoneting under bayonet
1132
awaking, cleaving, thriving
641
flied, goes, up
151
be
161
are
171
is
181
are
191
am
1A1
being
1B1
been

It is not clear that this field is consistently or correctly defined.

D lines - Definitions

D.1: Field D1 - D

This field introduces the definitions for the preceding main entry cards.

FrequencyCodeMeaning



140501DDefinition

D.2: Field D2 - Sense Number

Many words have many different meanings, or senses. Each different sense is given a sense number: the first sense is sense 1, and so on. Where an entry has only one sense, it is either sense zero or sense one.

FrequencySense NumberExample



461900
364171
338702
119563
52044
26825
15596
8727
5328
3359
23310
18311
14312
9713
6614
4715
2916
2217
1918
1319
921
520
522
523
424
125set
126set

D.3: Field D3 - Sense Letter

In addition to having multiple senses, some words have significant variations in meaning within a given sense. To distinguish these subsenses, they are given a sense letter in addition to a sense number. Thus, we can refer to sense 3a as well as sense 3b and 3c, where appropriate.

FrequencySense LetterExample



16660a
16580b
4307c
1214d
409e
153f
65g
30h
12i
10j
4l
4k
2ncall
1mcall

D.4: Field D4 - Sense Subnumber

Finally, in addition to having senses and subsenses, there are cases where we have sub-sub-senses. These are indicated by a subsense number. To completely distinguish these case, one must give a sense number, a sense letter, and the subsense number (as in definition 3b1).

FrequencySense SubnumberExample



17392
17371
2783
694
195
36
27good, stone
18stone

D.5: Field D5 - Part of Speech

Although the main entry card (F-card) indicated the part of speech for each entry, we actually could have had two parts of speech on the F-card: the part of speech (F6) and the secondary part of speech (F8). The D5 field specifies the part of speech for this particular definition. This will normally be one of the two parts of speech from the F-card. However, if the main part of speech on the F card was a verb (vb), then this field may further classify the verb as either a transitive (vt) or intransitive (vi) verb, an auxiliary verb (va), or an imperative verb (vp).

Notice that only the three entries brew (sense 1), lengthen, and tamper use the vb part of speech for the definition; all other entries use a more specific part of speech.

FrequencyPart of SpeechMeaning



80022nnoun
26084ajadjective
19408vtverb, transitive
8883viverb, intransitive
2320avadverb
863cfcombining form
552pppreposition
372vbverb
225pnpronoun
225pfprefix
223nsnoun suffix
200cjconjunction
188ncnoun combining form
128tmtrademark
98ijinterjection
89jsadjective suffix
65vaverbal auxiliary
26vsverb suffix
21dadefinite article
11vpverb imperative
8asadjective suffix
7iaindefinite article
4sfsuffix
2vmverb impersonal, past
2vcverb combining form
2npnoun plural suffix
1isinterjection suffix

D.6: Field D6 - Text Definition

The remainder of the D-card is the definition of the indicated sense of the dictionary entry. The definitions were transcribed directly from the printed text.
There are 135,973 unique values for this field. It appears that some (at least 7656 of them) of these values contain embedded semi-colons. Semi-colons after Field D6 are part of the dictionary text, and not field delimiters.

R cards - Related Words

R.1: Field R1 - R

The R cards specify words or phrases which are related to the main entry.

FrequencyCodeMeaning



19123RRelated words

R.2: Field R2 - Related Word or Phrase

The related word entry is similar to the F2 and V2 fields. There are 19049 distinct values for this field. We have the same sort of special cases:

R.3: Field R3 - Hyphenation

Hyphenation information is encoded as with fields F5 and V3. The hyphenation spans run from 1 to 9, with a few having values of A, B, C, D, and G. The G value is for will-o'-the-wispish. The longest field for R3 is for interdenominationalism;23231242. There are 845 distinct values of this field.

R.4: Field R4 - Part of Speech

This field gives the part of speech of the indicated related word, similar to Field F6.

FrequencyCodePart of SpeechExample




7981nnoun
5258ajadjective
4838avadverb
185vtverb, transitive
102vbverb
96viverb, intransitive
2ncnoun combining form
2acadjective combining form-cratic
1ppprepositionmidst

Note that the ac code is not used in Field F6.

R.5: Field R5 - Part of Speech Joiner

This field is similar to Field F7, and indicates the relationship between fields R4 and R6.

FrequencyCodePart of Speech Joiner



3401Equal
62Secondary

The six fields with a value of 2 are related to AWOL, crescendo, darn, half hour, pitter-patter, and slant.

R.6: Field R6 - Secondary Part of Speech

This field is similar to Field F8.

FrequencyCodeSecondary Part of SpeechExample




178nnoun
112ajadjective
34pnpronoun
20avadverb
1vbverbcross-reference
1ppprepositionmid

X lines - Cross Reference

X.1: Field X1 - X

The X card indicates a cross reference between the previous main entry (F-card) and the given word.

FrequencyCodeMeaning



4596XCross reference

X.2: Field X2 - Word

The X2 field is similar to the F2, R2, and V2 fields. The entries may contain capital letters, blanks, hyphens, and some special characters (including periods, parenthesis, numbers, and typesetting codes). For each cross reference, the type of cross reference is encoded in Field X5. Fields X3 and X4 help to specify exactly to which of the possibly multiple senses of the cross-referenced word reference is being made.

There are 1841 unique entries for Field X2.

X.3: Field X3 - Superscript, If Any

If the cross-reference word has homographs, we need to know which is being referred to. This entry matches the F3 value.

FrequencySuperscriptExample



31his, herself, -s
13squabble

X.4: Field X4 - Subscript, If Any

Once a cross-reference entry has been defined, it may be important to specify which of the possibly multiple senses is being referred to. Following the word may be a sense specifier. This can indicate simply a sense number, or a sense number and sense letter. This seems particularly important when a comparison is being made. For example, consider the cross reference to base under alkali or to meta-, orth-, and para- under benzene ring.

FrequencySubscriptExample



51
21a
21b
12
22a
22b
23
23b
14b
17

X.5: Field X5 - Type of Cross Reference

The original report from SDC [2] indicates that there may be 11 different values for this field; we found that only the following 8 actually occur.

FrequencyCodeMeaningExample




29969[bold syn] see <X2>averse
5716called also <X2>dipper
3934compare <X2>averse
3891see *** tablealuminum
1030see <X2>anth-
908[bold syn] see in addition <X2>abandon
533see <X6> at [mini MONEY] tableagora
15compare [mini ELEMENT] tablerare earth

The symbol <X2> means the contents of field X2 on this card; the symbol <X6> means the contents of field X6. The *** of code 1 can stand for money or element (at least) and is not recorded.

As with some of the other fields, it is not clear that this field has been consistently applied. There are still some occurrences of called also in the definitions, although these are generally scattered throughout only those words starting with an a, b, or c. We found 112 occurrences of called also [italic ...] in the files. See, for example, the entries for Haitian, hermorrhoid, hydroxide ion, and road.

X.6: Field X6 - Secondary Word

Each cross reference with an encoding of 3 in Field X5 is of the form See <X6> at [mini MONEY] table, where <X6> is some form of money. This field contains the form of money. The most common form is pound (8 occurrences), followed by four occurrences of dinar and two occurrences each of escudo, franc, krona, rupee, and yuan. There is one occurrence of each of afghani, baht, balboa, bolivar, colon, cruzeiro, deutsche mark, drachma, forint, gourde, guarani, hwan, kip, koruna, krone, kyat, lek, leu, lev, lira, markka, peseta, peso, riel, riyal, ruble, rupiah, schilling, somalo, yen, and zloty.

L lines - Labels

L.1: Field L1 - L

At various points in an entry, a label may appear. The L-cards transcribe these labels

FrequencyCodeMeaning



11992LLabel

L.2: Field L2 - Label Sense Number

To specify the entry which is being labeled, we must specify the sense number, letter, and subnumber as appropriate. In general, it is expected that the definition being labeled would follow the label, but this may not always be the case.

FrequencySense NumberExample



22711
19352
13170
6583
2784
1485
996
507
328
209
912
911
910
713
414
315
119life
121set
124strike

L.3: Field L3 - Label Sense Letter

This field is similar to Field D3.

FrequencySense LetterExample



700b
560a
211c
52d
12e
4f
3hdead, matter, what
1gmatter

L.4: Field L4 - Label Sense Subnumber

This field is similar to Field D4.

FrequencySubsense NumberExample



712
491
83
34number, objective, rate

L.5: Field L5 - Label Text

The label itself is a short phrase indicating some special property of the entry. Below are the most common properties listed in the labels. These are often combined, as in chiefly Scot, often cap M, and sing but pl in constr. There are 1494 distinct values.

FrequencyLabel TextMeaning



3051[italic pl]plural
2040[italic archaic]
1108[italic obs]obsolete
534[italic often attrib]attribute
465[italic often cap]capitalized
392[italic cap]capitalized
375[italic slang]
307[italic chiefly Brit]British
293[italic Brit]British
289[italic chiefly Scot]Scottish
222[italic pl but sing or pl in constr]plural but singular or plural in construction
183[italic chiefly dial]dialect
154[italic Scot]Scottish
103[italic dial]dialect
94[italic pl but sing in constr]plural but singular in construction
87[italic dial Brit]British dialect
39[italic dial Eng]English dialect
32[italic often not cap]often not capitalized
28[italic often cap], [italic often attrib]
26[italic not cap]

S lines - Synonym Block

S.1: Field S1 - S

The S-cards introduce a synonym block. Each synonym block is a short paragraph consisting of two parts. The first part gives a list of words which are synonyms. The second part gives information about the differences between the words. We have encoded these two parts in the S2 field. The list of synonyms is given in the first field, with an S2 value of 0. The remaining S cards have S2 values starting at 1 and increasing by one for each explanation, as in the following example, which follows dark.

S;0;[mini DIM], [mini DUSKY], [mini MURKY], [mini GLOOMY]:
S;1;[mini DARK], the general term, implies utter or virtual lack of#
illumination;
S;2;[mini DIM] suggests too weak a light for things to be seen clearly or#
distinctly;
S;3;[mini DUSKY] suggests deep twilight and close approach to darkness;
S;4;[mini MURKY] implies a heavy darkness such as that caused by smoke, fog,#
or dust in air or mud in water;
S;5;[mini GLOOMY] implies the serious interference with the normal radiation#
of daylight caused by dense clouds and connotes cheerlessness and pessimism
The list on the S;0; cards may or may not include the main entry which the synonym block follows. That is, notice that the above example synonym block follows the entry for dark, and includes dark on the S;1; card. However, dark is not listed on the S;0; card. The lists were transcribe directly from the printed copy. Of the 835 S cards, 331 have a list without the main entry. The remaining 502 cards have a complete list, including (as the first word in the list) the main entry.

FrequencyCodeMeaning



835SSynonym card

S.2: Field S2 - Synonym Entry Number

There is basically one S card for each word in the S;0 list. However, some entries (like alone) will merge two words into one S card. Other entries (like convert) have more than one entry per list word.

S.3: Field S3 - Synonym Entry Text

Most of these fields start with a mini-caps word, although there are some (like cloister) where entries begin with an article (a or an). Again there are internal semicolons, which should not be treated as field delimiters.

Appendix II: Special characters

The following is a list and explanation of the various special characters defined using the brace notation. For symbols which are not in the ASCII character set, or those which occur only infrequently, we have selected a name for the character. The name is enclosed in braces, and should be interpreted as a single character.

The first group of characters are those alphabetic characters which may have diacritical marks, such as a grave accent, accute accent, umlaut, carat, or tilda. These are encoded by placing the alphabetic character and its accent mark in braces.

Below we give the symbol, the number of times that it occurs, and an entry word giving an example. Notice that in come cases, such as the entry for {C,}, the symbol is used not in the example (compendium), but in the definition of the example.

Special codes are used in fields F2, E2, P2, V2, D6, R2, L5, and S2.

Pronunciation codes

FrequencySpecial CodeExample WordUsage




2{'}[Dhu'l-Qa`dah]E;Ar [italic Dh{u-}-l-qa{'}dah], lit., ...
61{a'}[Aymara]E;Sp [italic aymar{a'}]
10415{a-}[a]E;ME, fr. OE [italic {a-}n] one -- more at [mini ONE]
7{A-}[Ab]E;Heb [italic {A-}bh]
135{a.}[horselaugh]P;'h{o.}r-.slaf, -.sl{a.}f
11752{a:}[Aaronic]P;a-'r{a:}n-ik, e-
206{ae-}[abet]E; akin to OE [italic b{ae-}tan] to bait
2{AE}[Aegir]E;ON [italic {AE}gir]
303{ae}[acorn]E;ME [italic akern], fr. OE [italic {ae}cern]
15{a^}[ch{a^}teau]F;ch{a^}teau
1{A`}[vis-{a`}-vis]D;[mini T{E^}TE-{A`}-T{E^}TE]
42{a`}[gardyloo]E;perh. fr. F [italic garde {a`} l'eau{exclamation-point}] ...
50{a~}[Bisayan]E;Bisayan [italic Bisay{a~}]
1{c'}[Moho]E;Andrija [italic Mohorovi{c-hachek}i{c'} fl] 1908 ...
3{C,}[langue d'oc]D;[mini PROVEN{C,}AL]
57{c,}[aper{c,}u]F;aper{c,}u
1012{e'}[-ability]E;..., fr. MF [italic -abilit{e'}], ...
18{E'}[Beaum{e'}]L;[italic var of] [mini BAUM{E'}]
11{E-}[Eden]E;LL, fr. Heb '[italic {E-}dhen]
24706{e-}[ABC]P;.{a-}-(.)b{e-}-'s{e-}
11{e.}[hoop]E;..., Lith [italic kab{e.}] hook
13{e:}[Chlo{e:}]F;Chlo{e:}
26{e^}[ar{e^}te]F;ar{e^}te
2{E^}[vis-{a`}-vis]D;[mini T{E^}TE-{A`}-T{E^}TE]
190{e`}[ampere]E;Andre M. [italic Amp{e`}re] {dagger}1836 ...
3{E`}[calash]D;[mini CAL{E`}CHE] 2
75208{e}[Aaron]P;'ar-{e}n, 'er-
1{E~}[arris]E;... -- more at [mini AR{E~}TE]
23{e~}[-ese]E;Pg [italic -{e~}s] & It [italic -ese], fr. L [italic -ensis]
29{i'}[agouti]E;F, fr. Sp [italic agut{i'}], fr. Guarani
1{I-}[Jezebel]E;Heb [italic {I-}zebhel]
9224{i-}[Abib]E;Heb [italic {A-}bh{i-}bh], lit., ear of grain
59{i:}[abbey]E;ME, fr. OF [italic aba{i:}e], ...
5{I:}[natural]S;[bold syn] [mini INGENUOUS], [mini NA{I:}VE], ...
1{I^}[ma{i^}tre d']D;[mini MA{I^}TRE D'H{O^}TEL]
5{i^}[ma{i^}tre d']F;ma{i^}tre d';;;3;n;;
2{i`}[lame]E;..., Lith [italic l{i`}mti] to break down
8{i~}[Cistercian]E;ML [italic Cistercium] C{i~}teaux
59{k_}[Alberich]P;'{a:}l-b{e}-ri{k_}
6{m.}[Sankhya]E;Skt [italic s{a-}{m.}kyha], lit., based on calculation
1{n,}[friction]E;..., Skt [italic bhr{i-}{n,}anti] they injure
21{n.}[junk]E;Pg [italic junco], fr. Jav [italic jo{n.}]
1{n:}[pogy]E; akin to Abnaki [italic p8ka{n:}gan] menhaden
3841{ng}[Aberdeen Angus]P;.ab-{e}r-.d{e-}-'na{ng}-g{e}s
60{n~}[balboa]E;Sp, fr. Vasco N{u'}{n~}ez de [italic Balboa] ...
11138{o-}[Aaron]E;LL, fr. Gk [italic Aar{o-}n], ...
7{O-}[Obadiah]E;Heb [italic '{O-}bhadhy{a-}h]
6381{o.}[holocaust]P;'h{a:}l-{e}-.k{o.}st, 'h{o-}-l{e}-
93{o:}[acanth-]E; akin to ON [italic {o:}gn] awn ...
1{oe}[diphthong]D;a form of the ligature {ae} or {oe}
3{O^}[dinner]D;[mini TABLE D'H{O^}TE] 2
5{o^}[entrep{o^}t]F;entrep{o^}t
50{o`}[Oneida]E;Iroquois [italic On{e-macron-tilda}y{o`}de'], ...
21{o~}[alcove]E;F [italic alc{o~}ve], fr. Sp [italic alcoba], ...
5{r_}[betel]E;Pg, fr. Tamil [italic ve{r_}{r_}lai]
6{s'}[Israel]E;ME, ..., fr. Heb [italic Yi{s'}r{a-}'{e-}l]
7{S'}[Saiva]E;Skt [italic {S'}aiva], fr. [italic {S'}iva] Siva
7{s,}[bashi-bazouk]E;Turk [italic ba{s,}i bozuk] irregular soldier
45{s`}[ashram]E;Skt [italic {a-}{s`}rama], ...
533{th_}[airworthiness]P;-.w{e}r-{th_}{e-}-n{e}s
27{u'}[Chinook]E;Chehalis [italic Tsin{u'}k]
1{U-}[Uriel]E;Heb [italic {U-}r{i-}'{e-}l]
465{u-}[Algol]E;Ar [italic al-gh{u-}l], lit., the ghoul
3337{u.}[aardwolf]P;-.w{u.}lf
1{U:}[Geiger counter]D;[mini GEIGER-M{U:}LER TUBE]
4376{u:}[abduce]P;ab-'d(y){u:}s
1{ue-}[poilu]P;pw{a:}l-'(y){u:}, 'pw{a:}l-., pw{a.}-l{ue-}
4{u`}[Mohawk]E; akin to Narraganset [italic Mohowa{u`}uck]
13{u~}[Nebuchadnezzar]E;..., modif. of Bab [italic Nab{u~}-kudurri-u{s-sub-dot}ur]
79{y-}[balefire]E;ME, fr. OE [italic b{ae-}lf{y-}r] funeral fire, ...

Greek

FrequencySpecial CodeExample WordUsage




1{ALPHA}[alpha]D;the first letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {ALPHA} or {alpha}
5{alpha}[Altair]D;the first magnitude star Alpha ({alpha}) Aquilae
1{BETA}[beta]D;the second letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {BETA} or {beta}
2{beta}[beta]D;the second letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {BETA} or {beta}
1{CHI}[chi]D;the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {CHI} or {chi}
3{chi}[chi]D;the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {CHI} or {chi}
2{delta}[delta]D;the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {DELTA} or {delta}
3{DELTA}[delta]D;an increment of a variable -- symbol {DELTA}
1{EPSILON}[epsilon]D;the 5th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {EPSILON} or {epsilon}
2{epsilon}[epsilon]D;the 5th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {EPSILON} or {epsilon}
1{eta}[eta]D;the 7th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {ETA} or {eta}
3{ETA}[IHS]E;LL, part transliteration of Gk {IOTA}{ETA}{SIGMA}, ...
1{GAMMA}[gamma]D;the third letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {GAMMA} ...
3{gamma}[gamma]D;the third letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol ... {gamma}
2{iota}[iota]D;the 9th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {IOTA} or {iota}
4{IOTA}[IHS]E;LL, part transliteration of Gk {IOTA}{ETA}{SIGMA}, ...
1{KAPPA}[kappa]D;the 10th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {KAPPA} or {kappa}
3{kappa}[gamma nasal]D;gamma pronounced \\{ng}\\, before {kappa}, {chi}, {xi}, or ...
1{LAMBDA}[lambda]D;the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {LAMBDA} ...
1{lambda}[lambda]D;the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol ... {lambda}
1{MU}[mu]D;the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {MU} or {mu}
1{mu}[mu]D;the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {MU} or {mu}
1{NU}[nu]D;the 13th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {NU} or {nu}
2{nu}[nu]D;the 13th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {NU} or {nu}
1{OMEGA}[omega]D;the 24th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {OMEGA} or {omega}
3{omega}[omega]D;the 24th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {OMEGA} or {omega}
1{omicron}[omicron]D;the 15th letter ... -- symbol {OMICRON} or {omicron}
2{OMICRON}[IHS]E;LL, ... {IOTA}{ETA}{SIGMA}{OMICRON}{UPSILON}{SIGMA} ...
1{PHI}[phi]D;the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {PHI} or {phi}
1{phi}[phi]D;the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {PHI} or {phi}
1{PI}[pi]D;the 16th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {PI} or {pi}
6{pi}[gilbert]D;the cgs unit ... equivalent to 10{division-symbol}4{pi} ampere-turn
1{PSI}[psi]D;the 23rd letter of the greek alphabet -- symbol {PSI} or {psi}
1{psi}[psi]D;the 23rd letter of the greek alphabet -- symbol {PSI} or {psi}
1{RHO}[rho]D;the 17th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {RHO} or {rho}
4{rho}[rho]D;the 17th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {RHO} or {rho}
1{sigma-1}[sigma]D;the 18th letter ... -- symbol {SIGMA} or {sigma-1} or {sigma-2}
1{sigma-2}[sigma]D;the 18th letter ... symbol {SIGMA} or {sigma-1} or {sigma-2}
1{sigma}[rough breathing]D;a mark {rough-breathing-mark} used in Greek ...
4{SIGMA}[IHS]E;LL, part transliteration of Gk {IOTA}{ETA}{SIGMA}, ...
1{TAU}[tau]D;the 19th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {TAU} or {tau}
3{tau}[rough breathing]D;a mark ... {eta-accent}{tau}{omega}{rho} ...
1{THETA}[theta]D;the 8th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {THETA} or {theta}
1{theta}[theta]D;the 8th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {THETA} or {theta}
2{upsilon}[hyoid bone]E; ... like the letter upsilon ({UPSILON}, {upsilon}), ...
3{UPSILON}[IHS]E;LL, ... {ETA}{SIGMA}{OMICRON}{UPSILON}{SIGMA} ...
1{XI}[xi]D;the fourteenth letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {XI} or {xi}
2{xi}[gamma nasal]D;gamma pronounced \\{ng}\\, before {kappa}, {chi}, {xi}, ...
1{ZETA}[zeta]D;the 6th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {ZETA} or {zeta}
1{zeta}[zeta]D;the 6th letter of the Greek alphabet -- symbol {ZETA} or {zeta}

Punctuation and Math Symbols

FrequencySpecial CodeExample WordUsage




4{asterick}[asterisk]D;the character {asterick} used in printing ...
15{by}[Microcard]D;... card approximately 3 in. {by} 5 in. ...
3{center-dot}[congruent]D;... since 12 {minus} 2 {equals} 2 {center-dot} 5>
1{check}[check]D;a mark typically {check} placed beside an item ...
1{close-double-curly-quotes}[quotation mark]D;one of ... {close-double-curly-quotes} ...
1{close-double-straight-quotes}[quotation mark]D;one of ... {close-double-straight-quotes} ...
1{close-single-curly-quotes}[quotation mark]D;one of ... {close-single-curly-quotes} ...
1{close-single-straight-quotes}[quotation mark]D;one of ... {close-single-straight-quotes}
428{dagger}[Abelian group]E;Niels [italic Abel] {dagger}1829 Norw ...
75{degrees}[British thermal unit]D;the quantity of heat ... 39.2{degrees}F
9{diagonal}[and{diagonal}or]F;and{diagonal}or
3{division-symbol}[gilbert]D;the cgs unit ... 10{division-symbol}4{pi} ...
16{dollar-mark}[c]D;a sum of {dollar-mark}100
1{double-arrows}[equation]D;an expression ... of the sign {double-arrows} ...
1{double-bar-dollar-mark}[dollar mark]D;a mark {double-bar-dollar-mark} or ...
4{double-bond}[oxime]D;... {two-single-bonds}C{double-bond}NOH
1{double-dagger}[double dagger]D;the character {double-dagger} used ...
1{double-half-arrows}[equation]D;an expression ... {double-half-arrows} if ...
1{double-hyphen}[double hyphen]D;a punctuation mark {double-hyphen} used ...
33{equals}[acrylonitrile]D;a ... nitrile CH[sub 2]{equals}CHCN used ...
19{exclamation-point}[bobbery]E;Hindi ... oh father{exclamation-point}
1{fist}[index]D;a character {fist} used ...
1{flat-sign}[flat]D;a character {flat-sign} on ...
1{horizontal-brace}[brace]D;a mark ... {horizontal-brace} used ...
6{inches}[punchboard]D;a small board usu. 6{inches}{by}6{inches} ...
1{integral-sign}[sign]D;a character ... {integral-sign}) indicating ...
1{inverted-question-mark}[cooncan]E;... fr. Sp {inverted-question-mark} ...
1{left-brace}[brace]D;a mark {left-brace} or ...
5{left-bracket}[-ium]D;positive ion ... {left-bracket} ...
2{left-square-bracket}[bracket]D;one of a pair of marks {left-square-bracket} ...
20{minus}[Dry Ice]D;-- used ... at {minus}78.5{degrees}C ...
20{minutes}[east by north]D;a compass point ... N 78{degrees}45{minutes} E
1{natural-sign}[natural]D;the character or sign {natural-sign} ...
1{open-double-curly-quotes}[quotation mark]D;one of a pair ... {open-double-curly-quotes} ...
1{open-double-straight-quotes}[quotation mark]D;one of a pair ... {open-double-straight-quotes} ...
1{open-single-curly-quotes}[quotation mark]D;one of a pair ... {open-single-curly-quotes} ...
1{open-single-straight-quotes}[quotation mark]D;one of a pair ... {open-single-straight-quotes} ...
1{paragraph-mark}[paragraph]D;a character (as {paragraph-mark}) used ...
1{parallel}[parallel]D;a character {parallel} used ...
1{percent}[locker]D;a compartment ... at 80{percent} relative humidity
2{plus-or-minus}[functor]D;an expression (as {plus-or-minus} or ...
14{plus}[alkyl]D;... radical C[sub n]H[sub 2[italic n]{plus}1]
1{prime}[prime]D;the symbol {prime}
26{question-mark}[anadiplosis]D;... honor such as his{question-mark} ...
1{radical-sign}[radical sign]D;the sign {radical-sign} ...
1{radical}[sign]D;a character (as {division-symbol}, {radical}, or ...)
1{right-arrow}[equation]D;an expression ... {right-arrow} or ...
1{right-brace}[brace]D;a mark {left-brace} or {right-brace} or ...
5{right-bracket}[-ium]D;positive ... H{right-bracket}[sup +]>
2{right-square-bracket}[bracket]D;one of ... {right-square-bracket} ...
2{seconds}[obliquity]D;... 23{degrees}26{minutes}40{seconds}.16 ...
1{section-mark}[section]D;a character {section-mark} commonly used ...
4{sharp}[sharp]D;a character {sharp} on a line or ...
2{single-bond}[enol]D;... {two-single-bonds}C:C(OH){single-bond}
1{space-mark}[space mark]D;the symbol {space-mark}
1{spade}[spade]D;a black figure {spade} on each playing card ...
1{squareroot-of-3}[surd]D;an irrational root (as {squareroot-of-3})
2{squareroot-of-minus-one}[complex number]D;a number ... [italic b{squareroot-of-minus-one}] ...
3{stacked-commas}[ivory]E;... fr. Egypt {stacked-commas}[italic b], ...
1{ten-to-ten-to-hundred}[googolplex]D;1 followed by ... to {ten-to-ten-to-hundred}
8{times}[curie]D;a unit quantity ... 3.7 {times} 10[sup 10] ...
1{triple-bond}[acetylene]D;a ... hydrocarbon Hc{triple-bond}ch ...
8{two-single-bonds}[acetal]D;... the grouping {two-single-bonds}C(OR)[sub 2] ...
1{underbar}[heulandite]D;a zeolite (Na,Ca)[sub 4{underbar}6]Al[sub 6]...

Hebrew

FrequencySpecial CodeExample WordUsage




1{aleph}[aleph]D;the 1st letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {aleph}
1{ayin}[ayin]D;the 16th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {ayin}
1{beth}[beth]D;the 2d letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {beth}
1{daleth}[daleth]D;the fourth letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {daleth}
1{gimel}[gimel]D;the third letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {gimel}
1{heth}[heth]D;the 8th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {heth}
1{he}[he]D;the 5th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {he}
1{kaph(final)}[kaph]D;the 11th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {kaph} or {kaph(final)}
1{kaph}[kaph]D;the 11th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {kaph} or {kaph(final)}
1{lamed}[lamed]D;the 12th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {lamed}
1{mem(final)}[mem]D;the 13th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {mem} or {mem(final)}
1{mem}[mem]D;the 13th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {mem} or {mem(final)}
1{nun(final)}[nun]D;the 14th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {nun} or {nun(final)}
1{nun}[nun]D;the 14th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {nun} or {nun(final)}
1{pe(final)}[pe]D;the 17th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {pe} or {pe(final)}
1{pe}[pe]D;the 17th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {pe} or {pe(final)}
1{qoph}[qoph]D;the 19th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {qoph}
1{resh}[resh]D;the 20th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {resh}
2{sadhe(final)}[sadhe]D;the 18th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {sadhe} or {sadhe(final)}
2{sadhe}[sadhe]D;the 18th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {sadhe} or {sadhe(final)}
1{samekh}[samekh]D;the 15th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {samekh}
1{shin}[shin]D;the 22nd letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {shin}
1{sin}[sin]D;the 21st letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {sin}
1{taw}[taw]D;the 23d letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {taw}
1{teth}[teth]D;the 9th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {teth}
1{waw}[waw]D;the 6th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {waw}
1{yod}[yod]D;the 10th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {yod}
1{zayin}[zayin]D;the 7th letter of the Hebrew alphabet -- symbol {zayin}

Linguistic Symbols

FrequencySpecial CodeExample WordUsage




15{a-breve}[Aaron]E;LL, fr. Heb [italic Ah{a-breve}r{o-}n]
4{A-breve}[Amalekite]E;... pl. fr. [italic '{A-breve}m{a-}l{e-}q] Amalek ...
1{a-cidilla}[thong]E;... Av [italic thw{a-cidilla}z{j-hachek}aiti] ...
1{a-hachek}[Tuscarora]E;Tuscarora [italic Sk{a-hachek}-r{u-}-r{e-hachek}n], ...
8{a-macron-tilda}[bandanna]E;Hindi [italic b{a-macron-tilda}dhn{u-}] ...
1{a-sub-dot}[Hasid]E;Heb [italic h{a-sub-dot}{a-}s{i-}dh] pious
1{A-sup-circle}[angstrom]E;Anders J. [italic {A-sup-circle}ngstr{o:}m]
7{a-sup-circle}[desman]E;short for Sw [italic desmansr{a-sup-circle}tta], ...
2{accent-acute}[accent]D;a mark (as {accent-acute}, {accent-grave}, {circumflex}) ...
3{accent-grave}[accent]D;a mark (as {accent-acute}, {accent-grave}, {circumflex}) ...
1{alpha-smooth-breathing}[smooth breathing]D;a mark ... (as in {alpha-smooth-breathing}{gamma}...
1{asterism-down}[asterism]D;three asterisks ... {asterism-down}) ...
1{asterism-up}[asterism]D;three asterisks ... (as {asterism-up} ...
1{b-minus-c-overbar}[vinculum]D;a ... mark ... (as in a {minus} {b-minus-c-overbar} ...
1{b-sup-macron}[Verner's law]D;0;;;n;a statement ... fricatives {b-sup-macron}, ...
7{breve}[Adar Sheni]E;Heb [italic A{breve}dh{a-}r Sh{e-}n{i-}] second Adar
1{C-hachek}[Czech]E;Czech [italic {C-hachek}ech]
7{c-hachek}[Comanche]E; perh. akin to Hopi [italic kom{a'}n{c-hachek}i] scalp lock
1{c-with-vertical-bar}[alla breve]D;the sign {c-with-vertical-bar} marking ...
3{circumflex}[accent]D;a mark (as ... {circumflex}) used ...
1{curcumflex}[circumflex]D;a mark {circumflex}, {curcumflex}, or ...
1{curly-A}[swash]D;... <...{curly-A} {curly-R} {curly-P} {curly-N}>
1{curly-N}[swash]D;... <...{curly-A} {curly-R} {curly-P} {curly-N}>
1{curly-P}[swash]D;... <...{curly-A} {curly-R} {curly-P} {curly-N}>
1{curly-R}[swash]D;... <...{curly-A} {curly-R} {curly-P} {curly-N}>
9{d-sub-dot}[drub]E;perh. fr. Ar [italic {d-sub-dot}araba]
2{E-breve}[Elisha]E;Heb [italic {E-breve}l{i-}sh{a-}']
63{e-breve}[Ashkenazi]E;Heb [italic Ashk{e-breve}n{a-}z{i-}]
5{e-cidilla}[cinder]E; akin ... OSlav [italic s{e-cidilla}dra] stalactite
25{e-hachek}[Belial]E;Gk, fr. Heb b{e-hachek}l{i-}ya'al ...
1{e-macron-tilda}[Oneida]E;Iroquois [italic On{e-macron-tilda}y{o`}de'], ...
2{edh}[Verner's law]D;0;;;n;a ... {edh}, {g-sub-macron}, and [italic z] ...
1{eta-accent}[rough breathing]D;a mark ... {eta-accent}{tau}{omega}{rho} ...
1{fermata-down}[fermata]D; the sign {fermata-up} or {fermata-down} ...
1{fermata-up}[fermata]D; the sign {fermata-up} or {fermata-down} ...
2{g-hachek}[shagreen]E;by ... fr. Turk [italic sa{g-hachek}ri]
1{g-sub-macron}[Verner's law]D;0;;;n;a ... {g-sub-macron}, and [italic z] represented ...
2{h-sub-breve}[ankh]E;Egypt [italic 'n{h-sub-breve}]
38{h-sub-dot}[Apis]E;L, fr. Gk, fr. Egypt [italic {h-sub-dot}p]
3{H-sub-dot}[Heshvan]E;Heb [italic {H-sub-dot}eshw{a-}n]
1{hachek}[Judah]E;Heb [italic Ye{hachek}h{u-}dh{a-}h]
20{i-breve}[beluga]E;Russ [italic belukha], fr. [italic bely{i-breve}]
3{i-hachek}[hap]E; akin ..., OSlav [italic kob{i-hachek}] augury
1{i-macron-tilda}[chintz]E;... fr. Hindi [italic ch{i-macron-tilda}{t-sub-dot}]
3{j-hachek}[file]E; akin to Arm [italic {j-hachek}il] sinew
3{l-sub-dot}[milo]E;Sotho [italic mai{l-sub-dot}i]
1{macron}[macron]D;a mark {macron} placed over a vowel ...
2{n-breve}[Vaishnava]E;Skt [italic vai{s-breve}{n-breve}ava] ...
28{n-sub-dot}[Konkani]E;Marathi [italic Ko{n.}ka{n-sub-dot}{i-}]
1{o-breve}[Naomi]E;Heb [italic N{a-}'{o-breve}m{i-}]
3{o-cidilla}[permeate]E; ... OSlav [italic min{o-cidilla}ti] to pass
1{o-sub-dot}[Romany]E;Romany ..., fr. Skt [italic d{o-sub-dot}mba] ...
1{omega-rough-breathing}[rough breathing]D;a mark ... (as in {omega-rough-breathing}...
1{presa}[presa]D;a mark or cue (as :S: or {presa}) ...
1{r-hachek}[cricetid]E; akin ... [italic k{r-hachek}e{c-hachek}ek]
1{r-sub-diaeresis}[coir]E;Tamil [italic kayi{r-sub-diaeresis}u] rope
21{r-sub-dot}[Krishnaism]E;..., Skt [italic K{r-sub-dot}{s-sub-dot}{n-sub-dot}a]
1{rho-rough-breathing}[rough breathing]D;a mark ... {rho-rough-breathing}...
2{rough-breathing-mark}[rough breathing]D;a mark {rough-breathing-mark} used ...
2{s-breve}[Vaishnava]E;Skt [italic vai{s-breve}{n-breve}ava] of Vishnu, ...
23{s-hachek}[anacrusis]E; akin to Lith [italic kru{s-hachek}ti] to stamp
3{S-sub-dot}[Zephaniah]E;Heb [italic {S-sub-dot}{e-breve}phany{a-}h]
57{s-sub-dot}[Belshazzar]E;Heb [italic B{e-}lsha{s-sub-dot}{s-sub-dot}ar]
8{slash-o}[Boyg]E;Norw [italic b{slash-o}ig] bugbear
1{slur-down}[slur]D;a curved line {slur-up} or {slur-down} ...
1{slur-up}[slur]D;a curved line {slur-up} or {slur-down} ...
2{smooth-breathing-mark}[smooth breathing]D;a mark {smooth-breathing-mark} placed over ...
8{sub-dot}[Ananias]E;... fr. Heb [italic H{sub-dot}a{breve}nany{a-}h]
65{t-sub-dot}[Altair]E;Ar [italic al-{t-sub-dot}{a-}'ir], lit., the flier
1{t-sub-macron}[niter]E;... fr. Egypt [italic n{t-sub-macron}ry]
5{thorn}[Verner's law]D;0;;;n;a statement ... {thorn}, and ...
1{tilda}[circumflex]D;a mark {circumflex}, {curcumflex}, or {tilda} ...
20{u-breve}[apple]E; ..., OSlav [italic abl{u-breve}ko]
2{u-hachek}[roof]E; OSlav [italic strop{u-hachek}] roof
2{umlaut}[diaeresis]D;a mark {umlaut} placed over a vowel ...
1{y-breve}[gum]E;... fr. Egypt [italic qm{y-breve}t]
2{yogh}[yogh]D;a letter {yogh} used ...
9{z-hachek}[character]E; akin to Lith [italic {z-hachek}erti] to scratch
1{z-sub-diaeresis}[nizam]E;Hindi [italic ni{z-sub-diaeresis}{a-}m] order, ...
5{z-sub-dot}[nadir]E;ME, fr. MF, fr. Ar [italic na{z-sub-dot}{i-}r] ...

Fractions

And 37 fractions, which are of the form {a/b} where a and b are integers.

FrequencySpecial CodeExample WordUsage




5{1/1000}[gram]D;a metric unit of mass and weight equal to {1/1000} kilogram ...
3{1/100}[cent]D;a unit of value equal to {1/100} part of basic monetary unit ...
4{1/10}[blind]D;having less than {1/10} of normal vision in the more efficient eye ...
2{1/12}[month]D;a measure of time ... or {1/12} of a year
1{1/14}[agate line]D;a space one column wide and {1/14} inch deep used ...
4{1/16}[anna]D;a former monetary unit of Burma, ... equal to {1/16} rupee
1{1/1837}[electron]D;an elementary particle ... or {1/1837} that of a proton
1{1/192}[pie]D;a former monetary unit of India ... equal to {1/192} of the rupee
7{1/20}[fluidounce]D;a British unit of liquid capacity equal to {1/20} pint
1{1/22}[piaster]D;a former monetary unit of Saudi Arabia equal to {1/22} riyal
1{1/24}[karat]D;a unit of fineness for gold equal to {1/24} part of pure gold in an alloy
26{1/2}[agate]D;a size of type approximately 5{1/2} point
1{1/34}[maravedi]D;a medieval Spanish copper coin unit worth {1/34} real
1{1/360}[simple interest]D;interest paid ... on the assumption that each day is {1/360} of a year
1{1/36}[inch]D;a unit of length equal to {1/36} yard
9{1/3}[LP]D;-- used for ... turning at 33{1/3} revolutions per minute
1{1/4000}[para]D;a Turkish monetary unit equal in modern Turkey to {1/4000} of a lira
12{1/4}[O gauge]D;a gauge of track ... approximately 1{1/4} inches apart
1{1/6400}[mil]D;a unit of angular measurement ... equal to {1/6400} of 360 degrees
1{1/64}[pice]D;a former monetary unit ... Pakistan equal to {1/64} of the rupee
2{1/6}[obol]D;an ancient Greek coin or weight equal to {1/6} drachma
1{1/72}[point]D;a unit of about {1/72} inch used to measure the belly-to-back ...
1{1/746}[watt]D;the absolute mks unit ... : {1/746} horsepower
2{1/8}[bit]D;a unit of value equal to {1/8} of a dollar <four ~[italic s]>
1{2/10}[decimal]D;a proper fraction ... (as .2 {equals} {2/10}, ...)
2{2/3}[mixed number]D;a number (as [italic 5{2/3}] or [italic 7.238]) composed ...
3{2/4}[one-step]D;a ballroom dance ... in {2/4} time
1{2/5}[magnum]D;a large wine bottle holding about {2/5} of a gallon
1{25/1000}[decimal]D;a proper fraction ... (... .25 {equals} {25/100}, ...)
1{25/100}[decimal]D;a proper fraction ... (... .025 {equals} {25/1000})
1{3/2}[reciprocal]D;one of a pair of numbers (as {2/3}, {3/2}) whose product is one
9{3/4}[O O gauge]D;a gauge of track ... approximately {3/4} inch apart
1{3/8}[mazurka]D;music for the mazurka or ... in moderate {3/4} or {3/8} time
3{4/4}[gavotte]D;a tune for the gavotte in moderately quick {4/4} time
1{4/5}[jeroboam]D;a wine bottle holding about {4/5} gallon
3{5/8}[fraction]D;a numerical representation (as {3/4}, {5/8}, 3.234) of two numbers ...
3{6/8}[march]D;an instrumental ... triply compound rhythm (as {6/8} time) ...

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